Category - anal
Early detection remains the key to long-term survival as it is in many forms of cancer. There are no uk wide statistics available for anal cancer survival by stage. The researchers looked at different treatment combinations for people with anal cancer. The most common staging system for anal cancer is the tnm system. For anal cancer there are 5 stages stage 0 followed by stages 1 to 4. Often the stages 1 to 4 are written as the roman numerals i, ii, iii and iv. Generally, the higher the stage number, the more the cancer has spread. Earlier stage cancers such as stage i and ii are more likely to be cured than more advanced stages with larger tumors and cancers that have spread to local lymph nodes. With the use of radiation and chemotherapy, known as combined modality therapy (cmt), even some patients with spread to the lymph nodes will have good results. Stage ii (stage 2 anal cancer) the tumor is greater than 2 cm but has not spread to nearby organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. Stage iii (stage 3 anal cancer) there are two subcategories of stage iii anal cancer iiia and iiib. The categories differ by the extent to which the cancer has spread. At this stage, the cancer is still only in the inner lining of the anus and has not grown into deeper layers. Stage 0 tumors can often be removed completely by surgery (local resection). The goal is to take out all of the cancer as well as edge (margin) of healthy cells around it. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type of anal cancer (see introduction) and the extent or stage of cancer at the time it is found. If the cancer is diagnosed only in the anal area, the 5-year survival rate is about 82.